Kaizen Brain Center Office

Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussion

  • Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)
  • Post-Concussive Syndrome
  • Post-Concussive
    • Headache/Migraine
    • Neuropathic Pain
    • Memory Loss/Cognitive fatigue
    • Neurocognitive Disorder
    • Depression/Anxiety Disorder
    • Emotional Disorder
    • Mood Disorder
    • Sleep disorder
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Mild cognitive impairment is the intermediate stage between the decline one expects as a person ages and dementia. Patients often recognize their memory is slipping, and loved ones may notice as well, but daily function and activity are typically unaffected by MCI. Challenges include memory, thinking, language, and judgment beyond difficulties commonly associated with age.

People who have Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussion may also present with symptoms of MCI. These symptoms include:

  • Changes to personality and behavior
  • Difficulty handling money and paying bills
  • Losing things or misplacing them in odd places
  • Repeating questions
  • Taking longer to complete daily tasks
  • Wandering or getting lost

Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS)

PCS occurs as a result of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) or concussion. It can be acute (lasting less than one month) or chronic (lasting more than one month). Symptoms include migraine, vertigo, memory loss, functional impairment, and mood/emotional dysregulation. After a concussion, symptoms may occur anywhere from weeks to a year or more.

Symptoms include:

  • Cognitive impairment
  • Depression, irritability, and apathy
  • Dizziness or trouble with balance
  • Fatigue
  • Headache

Alzheimer's Disease

As the most common type of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease represents around 70 percent of all dementia cases. Early signs include difficulty remembering names, events, and conversations, with mood changes such as depression and apathy also being common early indicators of the disease. As Alzheimer’s progresses, patients experience confusion, impaired communication, disorientation, and poor judgment. They may also undergo behavioral changes and have trouble with motor functions such as walking, speaking, and swallowing.

Symptoms vary according to the disease’s progression and include:

  • Behavior changes
  • Impaired reasoning or judgment
  • Memory loss
  • Non-memory cognitive decline
  • Personality changes
  • Taking longer to complete daily tasks
  • Vision and spatial issues

Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA)

Usually considered a variant of Alzheimer’s, PCA is also known as Benson’s syndrome and causes a progressive decline in visual perception due to the gradual degeneration of the brain’s outer layer, called the cortex. While Alzheimer’s typically strikes patients over the age of 65, the onset of PCA typically begins between the ages of 50 and 65.

Symptoms include:

  • Slowly developing visual difficulties, such as:
    • Reading a line of text
    • Judging distance
    • Distinguishing between moving and stationary objects
  • Blurred vision
  • Difficulty reading or following text
  • Disorientation and difficulty maneuvering, identifying, and using tools or objects
  • Inability to perceive more than one object at a time

Vascular Dementia

Around 10 percent of dementia patients have vascular dementia, which most often occurs after a stroke caused by uncontrolled hypertension or diabetes. In addition to blood vessel blockage, vascular dementia may also be caused by bleeding in the brain.

Symptoms include:

  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Lack of concentration and trouble paying attention
  • Loss of vision
  • Trouble speaking or understanding speech

Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)

Frontotemporal dementia includes behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), corticobasal degeneration, Pick’s disease, primary progressive aphasia, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Damage to the frontal/temporal lobes of the brain may cause FTD, causing difficulty in behavior, language, and memory. Symptoms generally develop around age 60.

Symptoms include:

  • Behavior changes
  • Difficulty with language
  • Personality changes

Primary Progressive Aphasia

This component of frontotemporal dementia leads to a progressive decline in language ability.

Symptoms include:

  • Decreased use of language
  • Difficulty understanding or following conversations
  • Difficulty writing
  • Hesitation finding words and substituting words
  • Sentences with an abnormal word order or incorrectly substituting words, such as table instead of chair
  • Slowed or halting speech

Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)

DLB patients have memory loss and cognitive issues similar to Alzheimer’s but are more likely to develop symptoms early. Brain changes in DLB patients often mimic those of Parkinson’s disease, but in a different pattern.

Symptoms include:

  • Fluctuations in concentration, alertness, and attention
  • Movement issues similar to Parkinson’s, such as muscle rigidity, stiffness, and gait imbalance
  • Severe cognitive decline (thinking and reasoning)
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Visual hallucinations

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

This rare, progressive condition causes muscle weakness in the eyes, balance issues, and difficulty walking. The disease occurs due to deterioration in the area of the brain that controls thinking and movement.

Symptoms include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Loss of balance and mobility, often resulting in frequent falls
  • Mood and behavior changes, such as irritability or apathy (lack of interest)
  • Muscle stiffness or awkward gait

I am so grateful for the entire team at Kaizen. My son has a TBI and we have never received such stellar treatment. Dr. Ahmed has put together a team of professionals like no other. Thank you for all you have done and continue to do for my family!

Traumatic Brain Injury Patient’s Parent

Now accepting TRICAREs. To all who have served and continue to serve our country, we thank you.

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